Kauffmania larga (Kauffman) Örstadius & E. Larss., in Örstadius et al., Mycological Progress 14 (no. 25): 31 (2015)
Pileus 30–140 mm, at first hemispherical, then expanded convex to plane, sometimes umbonate, when young dark reddish brown to dark brown (Mu. 7.5YR 4/4), at maturity cinnamon, dark yellow brown to yellowish red (Mu. 5YR 5/6), sometimes glossy, when moist striate up to half-way from margin, hygrophanous, drying pale buff or cream, veil as white fibrils at margin, connecting to the stem in young fruitbodies. Gills adnate to adnexed, ventricose, crowded, L=30–40, at first beige, becoming reddish brown to brown (Mu. 7.5YR 4/4), with white flocculose edge under a lens. Stipe 40–110×4–15 mm, enlarged below, hollow, rather firm, whitish, pulverulent at apex, silky fibrillose below. Smell faint, sometimes like tomato leaves. Taste mild.
Basidiospores 7.5–10×4.5–6.5 μm, av. 8–9.6×5–5.8 μm, Qav. = 1.5–1.7, ellipsoid, oblong to ovoid, sometimes slightly irregular in outline, in profile sometimes phaseoliform, reddish yellow (Mu. 5YR 6/8), germ pore indistinct to absent. Basidia 18–36×8–10 μm, 4-spored. Basidia or other cells in hymenium sometimes in part with brown intracellular pigmentation. Pleurocystidia 40–90×10–24 μm, mostly utriform, sometimes obtusely fusiform, lageniform to clavate, rarely forked or rostrate, numerous, walls yellow. Cheilocystidia of two types: A: 35–90×10–22 μm, similar to pleurocystidia, numerous to scattered, B: small, clavate, scattered to numerous. Pileipellis a hymeniderm sometimes with transition to a paraderm of 20–60 μm wide cells; pileitrama of pale to moderately pigmented hyphae. Veil cells 20–150×2–10 μm, cylindrical. Clamps present.
Habitat and distribution: Gregarious to scattered in deciduous r coniferous forests on rotten wood, wood chips, sticks or twigs, or directly on soil, in dry or moist places, on acid- or base-rich soil; summer to autumn; so far recorded from Denmark, Finland, Germany, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and North America, but probably overlooked.
Index Fungorum number: IF811614
Notes: Kauffmania larga is recognized by its large size, scanty veil, and pale spores. The cystidia are large, mostly utriform and numerous. Psathyrella rostellata differs in having a well-developed veil in shape of large patches at cap margin, also reflecting in 4–20 μm wide veil cells. Moreover, the cystidia are lageniform to fusiform, at apex with a rostrum which often is bent or forked.
Figure 1: Photos of Kauffmania larga Sweden Västergötland, Habo, N. of Sjöbol, 22.10.1999, E. Grundel, LÖ197-99
Figure 2. Kauffmania larga. C. H. Kauffman holotype; Pl Pleurocystidia; Ch Cheilocystidia; Basidioma ×0,5; Scale bars = 10 μm