Cystofilobasidiaceae K. Wells & Bandoni, in The Mycota, 7(B): 113 (2001)
Diagnosis: Basidiocarps absent. Cultures often pink to orange due to carotenoid pigments. True hyphae produced. Pseudohyphae occasionally produced. Clamp connections may be present. Sexual reproduction observed in some species. Teliospores terminal or intercalary produced; teliospores germination by holobasidia. Budding cells present. Fermentation absent. Aromatic compounds weakly or not utilised. Nitrate and nitrite utilised. Major CoQ system CoQ-8.
Index Fungorum number: IF82103
Type genus: Cystofilobasidium Oberw. & Bandoni, in Oberwinkler, et al., Systematic and Applied Microbiology 4: 116 (1983)
Notes: The family Cystofilobasidiaceae was originally proposed within the order Filobasidiales mainly based on the morphological features of the holobasidia. Three genera Cystofilobasidium, Mrakia, and Xanthophyllomyces were included in this family (Wells & Bandoni 2001). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that this family represents an order independent of Filobasidiales (Fell et al. 1999, Fell et al. 2000, Scorzetti et al. 2002, Boekhout et al. 2011, Weiss et al. 2014, Liu et al. 2015a) and support the proposal of Cystofilobasidiales by Fell et al. (1999). The family Cystofilobasidiaceae was emended to include only the Cystofilobasidium clade (Lui et al. 2015b). The species in this family produce much longer (up to 65 μm) holobasidia (Fell et al. 1999, Sampaio 2011, Weiss et al. 2014) than those (8–12 μm) produced by the teleomorphic species in the other family Mrakiaceae within Cystofilobasidiales.
Figure 1. A taxonomic framework of genera and higher levels in Tremellomycetes based on the seven-genes phylogeny (Liu et al. 2015). The tree backbone was constructed using Bayesian analysis and branch lengths were scaled in terms of expected numbers of nucleotide substitutions per site. The Bayesian posterior probabilities (PP) and bootstrap percentages (BP) of maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining analyses from 1 000 replicates are shown respectively from left to right on the deep and major branches resolved. Note: ns, not supported (PP < 0.9 or BP < 50 %); nm, not monophyletic.
Boekhout, T., Fonseca, A., Sampaio, J. P., Bandoni, R. J., Fell, J. W., & Kwon-Chung, K. J. (2011). Discussion of teleomorphic and anamorphic basidiomycetous yeasts. In The Yeasts (pp. 1339-1372). Elsevier.
Fell, J. W., Roeijmans, H., & Boekhout, T. (1999). Cystofilobasidiales, a new order of basidiomycetous yeasts. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 49(2), 907-913.
Liu, X. Z., Wang, Q. M., Theelen, B., Groenewald, M., Bai, F. Y., & Boekhout, T. (2015a). Phylogeny of tremellomycetous yeasts and related dimorphic and filamentous basidiomycetes reconstructed from multiple gene sequence analyses. Studies in mycology, 81, 1-26.
Liu, X. Z; Wang, Q. M; Göker, M; Groenewald, M; Kachalkin, A.V; Lumbsch, H.T; Millanes, A.M; Wedin, M; Yurkov,A.M; Boekhout,T; Bai, F.Y. (2015b). Towards an integrated phylogenetic classification of the Tremellomycetes. Studies in Mycology. 81:85-147
Sampaio, J. P. (2011). Cystofilobasidium Oberwinkler & Bandoni (1983). In The Yeasts (pp. 1423-1432). Elsevier.
Wells, K., & Bandoni, R. J. (2001). Heterobasidiomycetes. In Systematics and evolution (pp. 85-120). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Weiss, M., Bauer, R., Sampaio, J. P., & Oberwinkler, F. (2014). 12 Tremellomycetes and Related Groups. In Systematics and Evolution (pp. 331-355). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.