Phaeotremellaceae Yurkov & Boekhout, in Liu et al., Studies in Mycology 81: 113 (2015)
Etymology: In reference to the name of the type genus Phaeotremella
Diagnosis: Basidiocarps, if present, foliaceous with caespitose lobes, gelatinous, tan to cinnamon or light brown when fresh, drying dark brown to black. Hyphae with clamp connections; haustorial branches occasionally present. Basidia globose, subglobose, ovoid or ellipsoidal, four-celled and with longitudinal to diagonal or transverse septa. Basidiospores subglobose to broadly ellipsoidal. Budding cells present in culture. Fermentation absent. Nitrate not utilised. Major CoQ system CoQ-10.
Index Fungorum number: IF813390
Type genus: Phaeotremella Rea, in Transactions of the British Mycological Society 3: 377 (1912)
Notes: The foliacea clade was resolved as early branching Tremellales in the seven-genes Bayesian tree without PP support; however, in the seven-genes ML and NJ trees, this clade was branching prior to the Tremellales and Trichosporonales lineages (Liu et al. 2015a). The foliacea clade was also resolved as a well-supported monophyletic group in the trees constructed from rRNA genes datasets, but its position varied. In the tree from the combined SSU, ITS-5.8S and LSU datasets, the foliacea clade is branching before the Tremellales and Trichosporonales lineages in Millanes et al. (2011), but between these two lineages in Liu et al. (2015a). In the trees from the LSU rRNA gene datasets containing more filamentous fruitbody forming taxa, this clade located within the Tremellales (Boekhout et al. 2011, Weiss et al. 2014), but as a group (equivalent to Phaeotremella) branching before the order in Lui et al. (2015b). The affinity of Cryptococcus spencermartinsiae to Phaeotremellaceae remains to be confirmed. It branches before the foliacea clade with strong to moderate support in the Bayesian and ML trees obtained from the seven genes dataset, but it occurred in a branch distantly related to this clade in the combined rRNA genes tree (Liu et al. 2015a). In the tree from the expanded LSU dataset, C. spencermartinsiae branched earlier than the foliacea (Phaeotremella) clade, but without bootstrap support. Furthermore, this species is not able to grow above 25 °C in contrast to the other species in the foliacea clade (Phaeotremella.) that can grow at 30 °C. Thus, it was proposed to accommodate it in the new genus Gelidatrema
Figure 1. A taxonomic framework of genera and higher levels in Tremellomycetes based on the seven-genes phylogeny (Liu et al. 2015). The tree backbone was constructed using Bayesian analysis and branch lengths were scaled in terms of expected numbers of nucleotide substitutions per site. The Bayesian posterior probabilities (PP) and bootstrap percentages (BP) of maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining analyses from 1 000 replicates are shown respectively from left to right on the deep and major branches resolved. Note: ns, not supported (PP < 0.9 or BP < 50 %); nm, not monophyletic.
Boekhout, T., Fonseca, A., Sampaio, J. P., Bandoni, R. J., Fell, J. W., & Kwon-Chung, K. J. (2011). Discussion of teleomorphic and anamorphic basidiomycetous yeasts. In The Yeasts (pp. 1339-1372). Elsevier.
Liu, X. Z., Wang, Q. M., Theelen, B., Groenewald, M., Bai, F. Y., & Boekhout, T. (2015a). Phylogeny of tremellomycetous yeasts and related dimorphic and filamentous basidiomycetes reconstructed from multiple gene sequence analyses. Studies in mycology, 81, 1-26.
Liu, X. Z; Wang, Q. M; Göker, M; Groenewald, M; Kachalkin, A.V; Lumbsch, H.T; Millanes, A.M; Wedin, M; Yurkov,A.M; Boekhout,T; Bai, F.-Y. (2015b). Towards an integrated phylogenetic classification of the Tremellomycetes. Studies in Mycology. 81:85-147
Millanes, A. M., Diederich, P., Ekman, S., & Wedin, M. (2011). Phylogeny and character evolution in the jelly fungi (Tremellomycetes, Basidiomycota, Fungi). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 61(1), 12-28.
Rea, C. (1912). New and rare British fungi. Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 3:376-380
Weiss, M., Bauer, R., Sampaio, J. P., & Oberwinkler, F. (2014). 12 Tremellomycetes and Related Groups. In Systematics and Evolution (pp. 331-355). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.