Turmalinea persicina Orihara, in Orihara et al., Persoonia 37: 186 (2015)
Etymology: Latin, persicina (= peach-coloured), refers to the characteristic colour of the fruitbodies.
Basidiomes up to 20 mm, subglobose to depressed-globose to reniform, rubbery, sessile or rarely with a reduced stipe at the base, surface covered with thin, smooth, pink to pinkish white peridium occasionally turning weakly blue to bluish green when bruised, becoming blackish pink at maturity due to blackish colour of the inner gleba. Gleba off-white, occasionally turning bluish green in youth when cut, then blackish brown at maturity, rubbery, composed of minute, irregular locules. Sterile base present, mostly pulvinate or rarely becoming a short, reduced stipe, translucent, subgelatinous. Rhizomorphs orange-yellow, common. Odour somewhat sweet but unpleasant. Basidiospores 13.1–20.2(–20.6) × (7.7–)7.8–10.4(–10.7) μm, mean 16.7 × 9.1 μm (SD: 1.74 (length), 0.64 (width)), Q = 1.37–2.37, Qm = 1.84, symmetric, ovoid to fusoid, colourless at first then becoming dark brown at maturity, with 6–10 irregularly longitudinal, partially branched ridges up to 2.9 μm high in water, often containing one large oil drop inside, often with a distinct hilar appendage up to 4.5 μm long, HA/S = 0.09–0.25, HA/Sm = 0.17 (n = 35), spore walls 0.6–1.3 μm thick. Basidia evanescent, cylindrical, 17.5–30.3 × 6–8.2 μm, mean 24 × 7.3 μm (n = 10), colourless to fulvous, 2-spored, walls thin (< 0.8 μm thick), inner matrix somewhat granulate. Basidioles persistent, 10–40 μm diam, clavulate to subspherical, colourless, thin-walled (< 0.7 μm thick). Trama colourless, of compactly interwoven, sinuate, thin-walled (< 0.6 μm thick) filamentous hyphae 2.3–9 μm broad. Sterile base of interwoven, partially branched, sinuate, colourless to pale yellowish brown, septate, thin-walled (< 0.8 μm thick) filamentous hyphae 3–13.5 μm broad. Peridium 40–325 μm thick, stramineous to yellow-brown under light microscopy, composed of non-inflated, partially branched, septate filamentous hyphae 2.5–9.5 μm broad parallel to subparallel to surface forming a cutis, walls 0.5–1.5 μm thick. Rhizomorphs 50–100 μm broad, of a bundle of yellow-brown, straight, thin-walled (< 0.8 μm thick) filamentous hyphae, mostly 2–6 μm broad but sometimes inflated to 12 μm broad.
Habitat, Distribution & Season: Hypogeous under evergreen plants of the Fagaceae: Castanopsis sieboldii, C. cuspidata, and Quercus glauca; Japan (western Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu); late autumn to spring (November to April), occasionally early summer (June).
Index Fungorum number: IF803433
Notes: Turmalinea persicina, which is widely distributed throughout western Japan, is easily distinguished from other species by its pinkish white to pale pink fruitbodies with yellow to orange rhizomorphs at the base. The large, persistent, inflated basidioles are also characteristic of the species. Like other species of Turmalinea, its sterile base is mostly pulvinate, but we found one fruitbody with a distinct stipe and a trace of hymenophoral pores (KPM-NC 18008). However, DNA sequences from this specimen were nearly identical to other, more typical specimens collected nearby (i.e., KPM-NC 18007 and KPM-NC 18008). This is an example of the high morphological plasticity of sequestrate fungi, sometimes caused by only a few nucleotide substitutions in key functional genes, which might be expected during the evolution of sequestrate taxa from epigeous relatives (Thiers 1984, Bruns et al. 1989, Kendrick 1992, Bougher et al. 1993, Hibbett et al. 1994).
Figure 1. Bayesian 50 % majority-rule consensus tree of the nuclear three-locus dataset (ITS, nLSU, and EF-1α) of Rossbeevera and allied genera (i.e., the leccinoid clade). Bayesian PP and RAxML bootstrap (BS) values (1 000 replicates) are indicated above or below branches or at nodes as PP/BS. Values of PP < 0.90 or BS < 50 % are not shown. Branches supported by both PP ≥ 0.98 and BS ≥ 70 % are depicted as thickened black lines. Branches supported by both PP ≥ 0.98 and BS < 70 % are shown as thickened grey lines. Incompatible topologies between the combined phylogeny and nuclear single-locus phylogenies are indicated by red asterisks. Names of new taxa and new lineages are coloured in red. Chalciporus piperatus and Buchwaldobobletus lignicola were used as outgroups.
Figure 2. Bayesian species tree inferred based on three nuclear loci (ITS, nLSU, and EF-1α) using BEAST. A total of 78 individuals with sequence data of all three loci were grouped into 43 terminal species-level taxa. Bayesian posterior probabilities (PP) are indicated above or below branches. Branches strongly supported by PP are highlighted as thickened lines.