Holtermanniales » Rhynchogastremaceae » Rhynchogastrema

Rhynchogastrema coronata

Rhynchogastrema coronata B. Metzler & Oberw. 1989, in Metzler et al., Systematic and applied microbiology, 12(3), 280-287 (1989).

            Etymology: coronata (Lat.) - crowned, wreathed.

            Diagnosis: In axenic culture, R. coranata develops a loosely interwoven hyphal mat which finally forms irregular strings of synnematous appearance. Hyphae dikaryotic, thin-walled, smooth, hyaline, not gelatinous, mostly 2.5-4 (-5) µm wide, with clamps (Figure 1-5). Septa with dolipores and parenthesomes comprising cup-shaped vesicles of the Tremella-type (Figure 11-13). Typical haustoriaI branches are formed consisting of a sphaeroidal basal part of c. 2 µm in diameter and a slender distal part of c. 0.5 X 5-12 µm. Usually they originate from clamp connections (Figure 1,3), but also from intercalary positions (Figure 10). In the presence of a potential fungal host the haustoria fuse with it (Figure 9). Basidia often in clusters, arising from clamps; basidium with a basally swollen probasidium, distally tapering into a neck of variable length, in total 5-7 x 15-30 µm; apex of the neck partly cruciately septate; septa extending only 1-3 µm backwards into the neck (Figure 2c, 3, 7, 8). Basidiospores sessile, mostly 4, rarely 1-6, each originating from one of the apical neck segments, exceptionally in lateral positions, maturing globose, 2-3 µm in diam., thick walled, wall yellow to brown, irregularly warted, warts blunt. During spore maturation yellowish-brown, persistent exudate is produced which surrounds the spores, often glueing them together as tetrads of 4-7 µm in diameter. Mature spores remain attached to old basidia. Spores germinate readily on moist substrates. The germ tube often breaks through beside the apiculus (Figure 16). On MEA, the monokaryotic stage starts often with a primary vesicle (Figure 14, 17 left, 23a, d, e), from which a yeast colony may originate. Yeast cells are ellipsoidal to fusiform or cylindroidal (Figure. 20, 21, 24). They often sprout along with a more or less pronounced mycelium of an irregular diameter, which easily fragments (Figure 20, 21). The yeast cells are encapsuled with mucilage which appears filamentous in TEM (Figure 16, 22). If, as usual, two or more spores of a tetrad germinate simultaneously, the germ tubes fuse spontaneously and clamped hyphae of a more or less regular diameter start to grow (Figure 15, 18, 23b, c, e). Crossing compatible yeast strains results in formation of clamped mycelium (Figure 25). The compatibility system was not identified. Mycelia and yeasts grow well at room temperature but scarcely at 5° and not at 37°C during two weeks. In contrast to the known taxa in the Tremellales, R. coronata has a unique basidial morphology. Also warted and pigmented basidic spores are not known in any other taxon of this order. Therefore, a new family is proposed to accommodate the genus.

Index Fungorum Number: IF280175


Figure 1-4. Different stages of basidial development and hyphae;H: Haustorium, N: Nucleus. (1) Young basidial stages, Probasidia after karyogamy (arrows). (2) Basidial development. a: Young basidium before spore differentiation; b, c: Partial apical longitudinal septation; d, e: Formation of young spore initials; f: Mature basidium with ornamented spored and basidial outgrowths below. (3, 4) Different stages of basidial development, partly with mature spore tetrads. (4) (left): Yeast cells. Scale bar = 10 µm.


Figure 5-8. (5,6) Groups of basidia in different developmental stages; spore initials (arrows); mature spore tetrads are often surrounded by a solidifying droplet of sticky, pigmented material. LM. Scale bar = 10 µm. (6) Basidial ventres partly stained with cotton blue. Insert: mature spore tetrad. (7) Spore initials with multilayered walls (arrowheads); partial longitudinal septation (large arrow). TEM. Scale bar = 2 µm. (8) Mature basidium with thick-walled ornamented spores; longitudinal septation (arrow). TEM. Scale bar = 2 µm.


Figure 9-13. (9) Rhynchogastrema coronata growing along with Penicillium hordei (P) obviously attacking it with haustoria (H). LM. (10) Haustorium inserted at a clamped hypha. TEM. Scale bar = 2 µm. (11-13) Dolipores with cup shaped parenthesomal elements. TEM. Scale bars = 0,5 µm.